The term 'Aryan' was coopted by the Nazis, but some of us are trying to take it back, if for no other reason, than until the time of the Nazis, historians often used the word... to refer to a somewhat mythic people, who spoke what is now also called "Proto-Indo-European.
'Aryan' is a somewhat less cumbersome term. The Fins & Basques speak a non Aryan language, but all the rest of European languages descend from Aryan.
Sykes, "The Seven Daughters of Eve" shows that Europe has only 7 mtDNA lines, but other sources show that there are over 60 Y chromosome lines, some also found in Semetic areas. So, the 'Aryans' are not the sons of any patriarchs like Abraham, but the descendants of seven sisters. Who have adopted others into the family. Or so the Iranians and some Indians believe.
The earliest trace of the Aryan language was found in an obscure Turkish valley, where the locals still use the original Aryan words for grains, fields, & livestock. This fits well with the pottery style found in Chalcolithic SE Europe where Aryan civilization really got going 7000 years ago. But it is in the Anatolian cities like Chatal Hoyuk were the original syncretic process began 10,000 years ago.
DNA reveals that wheat, that iconic Aryan crop, descended from einkorn still growing in the Taurus mtns. The first pottery, 8000 years old,.was found in Eastern Turkey. The frescos of the Anatolian cities show us oxen dragging the first plows.
The first dozen cities, on the closed drainage basin on the Anatolian plateau, were abandoned near the end of the 7th mil BCE. A few others were founded, but the bulk of the culture moved North to where the land was more fertile and the rain more reliable.
Gimbutas, Mallory, and many others have long had debates about where the original homeland of the Aryans was. One reason it was never found, was that nobody thot to look on the bottom of the Black Sea.
The Aryan vocabulary includes lotsa words for fresh water craft, lakes, swamps, creeks, rivers, fish, technology etc, but no words for the salt water ecosystem, so everyone ruled out the Black Sea area. But now we know the basin had fresh water in the era of Aryan unity.
But even then, Aryan was not a race, but a hybrid. Hodder reports caucasoid, alpine, and semetic skulls have been found at Chatal Hoyuk and the other 8th mil cities. But like the Aryans today, the technological innovation sucked energetic people out of other tribes.
They spread agriculture up the Danube, Bug, Dneipr rivers, and established trading posts, one of which was found outside Paris from 5000 BCE. It wasnt their race that marked them out, it was matriarchy amidst the usual array of primitive patriarchic hunting tribes in all directions.
They were not easy targets. In an era when the hunting tribe was limited to 50 warriors, they organized cities with thousands. And while the hunters needed 25 square miles of territory for each hunter, the Aryans only needed 3 square miles for a whole agrarian village of 50-150, with strings of villages every 3km up & down both banks of the rivers. The tels are still there.
The Aryans didnt look any different from the warrior tribes, but they were, in large part because of matriarchic rule, far more able to organize. when you have male leaders, you tend to get too many chiefs, and not enuf Indians. which is going on in Iraq right now.
But then, as now, young women heard about, or visited while trading, and saw the power of women in the community, and the smarter, more energetic women left mysogenistic tribes for what they saw as a better way to live. The 5000 year old graveyard at Varna Bulgaria proves the point. The men lived into their late 30's, the women into their middle 40's, a longevity not seen again until the late 19th century.
But 6000 years ago, was when the Aryans began affecting other cultures because of the domestication of the horse. In some ways, a perfect storm. When the horse came into SE Europe, so did Anthrax, and the whole region was abandoned for generations. But going out on the horse were, as Mallory put it , the "gracile" Cucuteni women, who averaged 50kg in an era when the horses were only137cm at the withers.
Being a big strong warrior no longer mattered. The women could ride a horse faster than he could run, and he was too heavy for the horse. Aryan culture moved onto the Steppes, going all the way to China, where we know them as the Tocharians.
then as now, the Steppes had droughts that drove the Aryans south looking for anything green. But when they came down into India or Persia, what they ran into were 'civilizations' of serfs & slaves run by goon squads and kings. 100,000 Aryan nomads shows up, and just like Atilla, the slave class sees a chance for new management, and there's a revolution.
All brought to them by women who could care less. But historians, having to pander to the sensibilities of the warrior class that took over after the Aryans went back to the Steppe, had to characterize them as a mighty army.
But being mobile, they became merchants, opening up trade routes, and the Aryan language was the lingua franco of business just as English is now, and used among populations that know of it, but dont speak it.
So- the Aryans go back a long ways, but you can never nail them down to any particular place very long, or say just who they were. They were always getting energetic people added to their gene pool from whatever race. Any boy who did not want to be a slave for the rest of his life could steal enuf food and run after a camel train as it passed thru town. All he hadda do was stay ahead of a goon squad sent after him. 5 days was ordinarily sufficient to the purpose, and no matter what his race, he became an 'Aryan'.
Any god watching me hasta be bored, and needs to get a life.